GLOSSARY

  • Absolute Metric

    The Absolute Metric is one of three metrics in the CRC Energy Efficiency Scheme used to measure the performance of participants in the annually published Performance League Table (PLT). The Absolute Metric scores participants based on absolute increases or decreases in their emissions, irrespective of growth or decline in the size of the organisation. It stands for 0% in year 1, 45% in year 2, 60% in year 3 and 75% thereafter. The Absolute Metric therefore has a large impact on the position of an organisation in the PLT, with the intention of encouraging an overall reduction in the emissions of participants as the Scheme progresses. The other metrics are the Early Action Metric and the Growth Metric.
  • Carbon Reduction Commitment (CRC)

    The CRC Energy Efficiency Scheme (formerly known as the Carbon Reduction Commitment) is a mandatory carbon emissions reporting and pricing scheme to cover all organisations in the UK (excluding state funded schools in England from April 2013), using more than 6,000MWh per year of electricity. The scheme is managed, on behalf of the UK Government's Department of Energy & Climate Change (DECC), by the Environment Agency (in England and Wales), by the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (in Scotland), and by the Department of the Environment Northern Ireland (in Northern Ireland).
  • DBEIS

    Department of Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
  • EIIs

    EIIs are Energy Intensive Industries which include sectors such as mining and heavy manufacturing, and are distinguished by their trade and electricity intensity
  • Advisory Report

    Accompanies a Display Energy Certificate. It is valid for seven years once produced. The document details a range of possible measures that might be implemented to improve the energy performance of the property.
  • Air Conditioning

    The removal of heat from indoor air for thermal comfort
  • Annual Quantity (AQ)

    The expected annual quantity of gas consumed measured in kilowatt hours (kWh) recorded by Transco.
  • Audit

    Defined under the draft European standard as 'systematic inspection and analysis of energy use and energy consumption of a system or organisation with the objective of identifying energy flows and the potential for energy efficiency improvements'.
  • Authorised Supply Capacity (ASC)

    An agreed amount of electrical load for a property (measured in kVA - kilovolt-amperes), defined in the property’s Connection Agreement with the local Distribution Network Operator (DNO).
  • Automated Meter Reading (AMR)

    Automated Meter Reading (AMR), is a system developed to provide an automatic digital meter reading and deliver remote meter reading.
  • Availabilty

    Availability (kVA) or Agreed Capacity refers to the limit of energy capacity for a site.
  • Availability Charge

    The availability charge is set by the local Distribution Network Operator (DNO), based on the kVA of a premise, and covers investment and maintenance of the electricity network.
  • Bar

    A unit of pressure equal to 100 kilopascals, roughly equal to the atmospheric pressure on earth at sea level
  • Baseload

    Baseload is the level below which electricity demand never drops on a particular site.
  • Controls – HVAC

    The Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning controls used to programme central controllers and most terminal unit controllers.
  • Baseload Plant

    An energy plant devoted to the production of baseload supply
  • Benchmarking

    The process of comparing one's business processes and performance metrics to industry bests and/or best practices from other industries.
  • Biomass

    Fuel obtained from organic matter either directly from plants or indirectly from industrial, commercial, domestic or agricultural products.
  • British Standard

    Standards produced by BSI Group which is the nationally recognised body for setting quality standards across multiple industries.
  • British Thermal Unit (BTU)

    The amount of heat energy needed to raise one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit (F).
  • Building Regulations

    Standards for design and construction which apply to most new buildings and many alterations to existing buildings in England and Wales.
  • Calorific Value (CV)

    Amount of heat given by the specified quantity of gas, used to calculate the energy consumed based on the volume of gas used and measured in joules per kilogram.
  • Capacity

    Capacity (or peak) refers to the highest level of electricity that a given utility can supply at any one time.
  • Carbon Dioxide

    An inert non-toxic gas produced from decaying materials, respiration of plant and animal life, and combustion of organic matter, including fossil fuels.
  • Carbon Footprint

    A measure of the amount of carbon dioxide or CO2 emitted through the combustion of fossil fuels (directly or indirectly). Carbon footprints are generally seperated between Scope 1,2, and 3 emissions.
  • Carbon Trust Standard

    Provides a robust objective and consistent methodology for assessing corporate carbon performance, based on carbon footprint measurement, carbon management and carbon reduction performance.
  • Change of Measurement Class

    Process of changing the class of measurement (e.g. changing non-half hourly electricity to half hourly electricity)
  • Change of Profile Class

    The process by which a profile class is changed. Profile Class is defined in the BSC as ‘a classification of profiles which represents an exclusive category of customers whose Consumption can be reasonably approximated to a common profile for Settlement purposes’.
  • Change of Tenancy

    A change of consumer in premises, where the party that is responsible for paying for the energy used is altered.
  • Chillers

    Machine that removes heat from a liquid via a vapor-compression or absorption refrigeration cycle. These can be either air- or water- cooled.
  • Climate Change Agreement

    An agreement between the Government and a business user, whereby a reduced rate of Climate Change Levy is payable in return for a commitment by the user to achieve certain pre-determined targets for energy usage or carbon emissions.
  • Climate Change Levy (CCL)

    A government-imposed tax to encourage reduction in gas emissions and greater efficiency of energy used for business or non domestic purposes
  • Combined Heat and Power (CHP)

    Combined Heat and Power schemes are designed to recover the up to 60% of energy that can be wasted in standard generation as lost heat. They generally use this waste heat to power a turbine and generate electricity.
  • Combustion

    Combustion (or burning) is the sequence of exothermic chemical reactions between a fuel and an oxidant accompanied by the production of heat and conversion of chemical species.
  • Consumption

    A measure of demand (power requirement) over time.
  • Controls

    Used to provide direct digital/analog control. The unit controllers typically have analog and digital inputs that allow measurement of the variable (temperature, humidity, or pressure).
  • CRC Energy Efficiency Scheme

    A mandatory scheme aimed at improving energy efficiency and cutting emissions in large public and private sector organisations. The scheme features a range of reputational, behavioural and financial drivers, which aim to encourage organisations to develop energy management and rationalise energy usage.
  • Customer Reads

    Fuel suppliers are generally only legally obliged to read meters once every two years, but are legally obliged to take customer meter reads when they produce an estimated bill.
  • CUSUM

    (cumulative sum of variances) is a sequential analysis technique typically used for monitoring change detection, and generally used in energy monitoring and targeting to assess changes in energy performance.
  • Data Aggregator

    An organisation accredited by the Electricity Pool Accreditation Body to carry out Data Aggregation for Half Hourly (HH) metering data.
  • Data Collector

    An organisation accredited by the Electricity Pool Accreditation Body to carry out Data Collection for Half Hourly (HH) Metering Systems
  • Day Rate

    Price set by the electricity supplier for daytime provision of supply (typically 7 am to midnight)
  • Degree Days

    A measure of heating or cooling. A zero degree-day is when either heating or cooling consumption is at a minimum, which is useful with power utility companies in predicting seasonal low points in energy demand.
  • Demand

    A measure of power requirement (in Kw)
  • Display Energy Certificate (DEC)

    Since 1 October 2008 public buildings in the UK over 1,000m2 must display a Display Energy Certificate (DEC) prominently at all times. They are based upon actual energy usage of a building.
  • Distribution Network Operator (DNO)

    Companies licensed to distribute electricity in Great Britain by the Office of Electricity Markets.
  • Distribution Use of System Charge

    Charge paid to the distribution network operators by suppliers for the use of the network infrastructure. Electricity distribution network operators have collectively agreed a common template for their distribution use of system charges.
  • Draught Proofing

    Charge paid to the distribution network operators by suppliers for the use of the network infrastructure. Electricity distribution network operators have collectively agreed a common template for their distribution use of system charges.
  • Early Action Metric (EAM)

    One of three metrics used in the CRC Energy Efficiency Scheme to rank the performance of participants in the annually published Performance League Table. The EAM recognises steps that participants took early in the Scheme to address energy efficiency, namely the total organisational emissions covered by the Carbon Trust Standard (or equivalent) and the total energy measured through voluntary AMR during Year 1 of the Scheme. The EAM stands for 100% of the overall PLT score in year 1, 40% in year 2 and 20% in year 3. The other two metrics are the Absolute Metric and the Growth Metric.
  • Electricity

    A general term which describes the presence and flow of electric charge
  • Energy

    In physics, energy is understood as the ability a physical system has to do work on other physical systems. It is measured in joules.
  • Energy Management

    The control of energy usage by monitoring and managing demand.
  • Energy Management System

    The management of an organisation's environmental protection programmes in a comprehensive, systematic, planned and documented manner.
  • Energy Performance Certificate (EPC)

    Intended to inform potential buyers or tenants about the energy performance of a building, so they can consider energy efficiency as part of their investment or business decision. The scale is from A-G, A being the most efficient.
  • Emissions

    CO2 and other greenhouse gases produced by energy use, usually calculated and stated as an annual tally.
  • European Union Emissions Trading Scheme

    The EU ETS was launched in 2005 and is a major pillar of EU climate policy. Under the EU ETS, large emitters of carbon dioxide within the EU must monitor and annually report their CO2 emissions and then return an amount of emission allowances to the government that year that is equivalent to those CO2 emissions.
  • Evening and Weekend Tariffs

    Prices that enable business customers to pay less for electricity consumed at night (typically 9pm - 7 am) and at weekends; this off-peak consumption can be separately metered.
  • Excess Capacity

    Power generation capacity available on a short-term basis that exceeds the firm energy on long-term contracts offered to electricity customers.
  • Floor Area

    The gross floor area of a building includes areas occupied by walls and partitions, the circulation area (where people walk), and the mechanical area (where there is mechanical equipment). The net floor area excludes walls, partitions and the circulation and mechanical areas.
  • Fuel Poverty

    In the UK fuel poverty occurs when in order to heat its home to an adequate standard of warmth a household needs to spend more than 10% of its income to maintain an adequate heating regime.
  • Gigawatt (GW)

    Equal to one billion (109) watts or 1 gigawatt = 1000 megawatts. This unit is used for large power plants or power grids.
  • Growth Metric

    One of three metrics used in the CRC Energy Efficiency Scheme to measure the performance of participants in the annually published Performance League Table. The Growth Metric takes into consideration the growth or decline of an organisation in relation to its annual emissions. It stands for 0% in year 1, 15% in year 2, 20% in Year 3 and 25% thereafter. The other two metrics are the Early Action Metric and the Absolute Metric.
  • Half Hourly Data (HHD)

    The product of the half-hour data meter. The data is usually made available to end users by way of a spreadsheet - a full years' half-hour data will be a spreadsheet with approximately 18,520 cells of data.
  • Heat Loss

    The transfer of heat from inside to outside by means of conduction, convection, and radiation through all surfaces of a building.
  • Heat Recovery

    The capture and use of heat generated by lighting, cooling and refrigeration systems for purposes requiring heat.
  • Heating

    The imparting and/or generation of heat
  • Insulation

    The use of materials to reduce or stop the flow of electricity or heat. Thermal insulation uses materials to reduce the effects of heat transfer between objects in thermal contact.
  • ISO 14001

    An environmental management standard agreed internationally in 2004 that provides requirements for an environmental management system.
  • ISO 5001

    This energy management standard is an international framework for industrial plants, commercial facilities or entire organizations to manage energy, including all aspects of procurement and use.
  • Kilo-Volt-Amp (KVA)

    Also known as Total Power. The resultant effect of the active (kW) and reactive (kVAr) power is the total power measured in kVa. Kva = kW/power factor.
  • Kilo-Volt-Amp Reactive-Hour

    The units of power drawn by capacitive loads and inductive (magnetic) loads in each hour. Meters can be provided to measure these units against time.
  • Kilowatt

    Defined as one thousand joules per second, and measures the rate of energy conversion.
  • Kilowatt-hour (kWh)

    Measures a unit of energy equivalent to 3,600,000 joules. It is also used to describe the amount of energy that would be transferred at a constant rate of one kilowatt in one hour.
  • Kyoto Protocol

    An international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding targets for 37 industrialised countries and the European Union for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
  • Lighting

    The method or equipment used to provide artificial illumination.
  • Line Loss Factor

    Line Loss Factor codes are used to calculate the related distribution use of system (DUoS) charges for a meter point administration number (MPAN). The figure shows the voltage scale of the MPAN and reflects both the amount of transmission infrastructure used to supply the point and the amount of energy lost through heat etc.
  • Load

    The amount of electric power delivered or required at any specific point or points on an electrical system.
  • Load Factor

    Measures the relationship between unit consumption and maximum demand. It is the percentage capacity utilisation figure of a site's power consumption. To calculate load factor take the total number of units of consumption, divide by the maximum demand, divide by the number of hours in the period, and multiply by 100.
  • Megawatt (MW)

    A unit for measuring power which is equivalent to one million watts.
  • Maximum Demand

    The highest peak of usage (kWh) in any half hour during a calendar month or between two meter readings measured in either kW or kVA.
  • Measurement Class

    Refers to how your meter measures electricity - it gives details of the meter and the profile class associated with it.
  • Megawatt Hour (MWh)

    Measures a unit of energy equivalent to 3,600,000,000 joules. It is also used to describe the amount of energy that would be transferred at a constant rate of one megawatt in one hour.
  • Meter Number

    The number that uniquely identifies the energy meter. Electricity meter numbers are called Meter Point Administration Numbers; gas meter numbers are called Meter Point Reference Numbers.
  • Meter Operator MO or MOp

    An organisation responsible for installing and maintaining electricity and gas meters.
  • Meter Read

    The act of collecting consumption, diagnostic, and status data from water or energy measuring devices (gas, electric) for billing, troubleshooting and analysis.
  • Natural Gas

    Consists primarily of methane, but can include up to 20% of higher hydrocarbons. Before natural gas can be used as a fuel, it must undergo processing to remove almost all materials other than methane.
  • Night Rate

    A lower price for electricity during a specific (off-peak) period typically from midnight to 7am.
  • Non Half Hourly Metering (NHH)

    Unlike a Half-Hourly meter, a meter reader must visit the site to obtain NHH readings. There are various different tariffs available for these meters.
  • Off Peak

    Refers to energy usage during evenings, the night and weekends. Off Peak metering enables customers to receive lower prices for supply in these periods.
  • OFGEM

    Regulates the electricity and gas markets in Great Britain.
  • OFREG

    The Northern Ireland Authority for Utility Regulation.
  • Peak

    Prices charged for electricity provision daytime Monday-Friday. Typically this covers the period from 7am to midnight.
  • Peak Demand

    The point of maximum electricity demand on the national system.
  • Pence Per Kilowatt Hour

    The method by which electricity savings are calculated to enable comparison across suppliers, or if required across fuels.
  • Photovoltaics

    A method of generating electrical power by converting solar radiation into direct current electricity using appropriate semi-conductors.
  • Power Factor

    Relates to how efficiently electricity is used on your site. Distribution Network Operators' (DNOs) can charge customers for a reduction of network capacity through poor power usage through power factor charges.
  • Pressure

    Defined by force per unit area.
  • Profile Class

    Defined in the BSC as ‘a classification of profiles which represents an exclusive category of customers whose Consumption can be reasonably approximated to a common profile for Settlement purposes’.
  • Reactive Power (kVar)

    The difference between the electricity supplied and the electricity converted into useful power.
  • Reactive Power Charge (kVarh)

    A levy on number of reactive units consumed if it exceeds a pre-determined percentage of kilowatt hours consumed.
  • Renewable Energy

    Produced using naturally replenishing resources - solar power, wind, wave and tide and hydroelectricity.
  • Renewable Obligation Certificate (ROC)

    A certificate of renewable energy usage by Mwh sold to suppliers to cover their renewables obligation.
  • Small Power

    Generic term for electrical equipment connected to a consumer outlet.
  • Solar Energy

    Radiant light and heat from the sun, harnessed to produce solar power.
  • Standing Charge

    This is a daily or monthly charge to contribute towards installation, maintenance and administration costs for the local Distribution Network Operator (DNO).
  • Stern Report

    This infuential report, written in 2006 by Sir Nicholas Stern discusses the effect of global warming on the world economy
  • Supplier

    A person authorised by a supply licence to supply electricity or gas to the National Grid Network.
  • Supplier Number

    S-Number (also known as MPAN - Meter Point Administration Number) - this unique number identifies the distribution company and the location of the metering point.
  • Survey

    An energy survey identies quick and effective ways to improve energy efficiency
  • Take or Pay Clause (TOP)

    A clause defining the percentage of gas purchased by the buyer from the seller against the Minimum Bill Quantity.
  • Tariff

    Schedule of energy prices charged by electricity or gas suppliers
  • Terrawatt Hours (TWh)

    This measures energy usage in units equivalent to a constant supply of 1012 watts per hour
  • Therm

    A unit of energy measurement. Multiply by 29.3071 to calculate the equivalent in kilowatt hours.
  • Thermal Efficiency

    A performance measure of a device that uses thermal energy e.g. a boiler or refrigeration unit.
  • Tidal Power

    A form of hydropower that converts the energy of tides into useful forms of power - mainly electricity.
  • TM44

    Guidance on carrying out the required air conditioning inspection within reasonable constraints of time, cost and skills.
  • Torque

    Used in the analysis of ancillary equipment, torque is the tendency of a force to rotate an object about an axis or pivot.
  • TRIAD

    TRIAD charges measure maximum demand readings three times a year and use the average of these readings to calculate a Transmission Use of System (TuOS) charge.
  • Transmission Use of System Changes (TuOS)

    These charges are incurred for transmitting electricity across the National Grid network from the source of generation to the network of the local distribution company.
  • U-Value

    Measures how well a building component, e.g. a wall, roof or a window, keeps heat inside a building
  • Unit (See Kilowatt Hour)

    A measurement of energy usage in utilities. The UK standard unit is kilowatt hour for both gas and electricity.
  • Valves

    Devices for controlling the passage of fluid through a pipe or duct, often an automatic device allowing movement in one direction only.
  • Variable Speed Drives

    Provide a system for controlling the rotational speed of an alternating current electric motor by controlling the frequency of the electrical power supplied to the motor.
  • Ventilation

    Assisted or controlled movement of air from outside a building to the inside.
  • Volt (V)

    The SI unit for electrical potential or electrical potential difference. It measures electromotive force. volt(V) is the SI derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference, and electromotive force.
  • Voltage

    Unit used to measure the electromotive force of an electric current.
  • Volume

    Measured in cubic metres
  • Walkaround

    A basic energy survey that identifies mainly no and low cost energy reduction opportunities.
  • Watt

    The SI unit of power, equivalent to one joule per second
  • Wind Turbine

    A device that converts kinetic energy from the wind into mechanical or electrical energy.

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